The macroscopic geometry is a key element in providing spatial organization for cell growth and appropriate nutritional conditions. Fully interconnected pores structures based on micro tetrapods filaments fulfill the geographical requirements for tissue engineering by mimicking the micro structure of natural extra cellular matrix.
Micro ZnO tetrapods are served as a sacrificial template for variety range of materials. Regarding the specific feature of carbon nano tube and Hydroxyapatite and also graphene, mainly they are used individually or their combination in order to be deposited on the ZnO tetrapods. Therefore, via altering the materials various biochemical signals may be introduced to provide appropriate conditions for 3D mammalian cell culture applications.
The flexibility in tuning the mechanical, electrical conductivity, biochemical activity, geometrical, porosity percentage and size, provide excellent chance to develop artificial tissues by coupling different cell type with their close matched scaffold.